CANNABINOIDS

Hundreds of cannabinoids identified.

Found in cannabis plants.

First cannabinoid, CBD, discovered in 1940.

Interact with the body's Endocannabinoid System.

Cannabinoids are a class of compounds naturally found in cannabis. These compounds interact with the body's endocannabinoid system.  Cannabinoids and related research have gained tremendous popularity over the past two decades. 

Below is a brief overview of the purported medical properties of various cannabinoids. 

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Cannabinoid Receptors & the ECS

THC

Analgesic

Appetite Stimulant

Antimetic

Antispasmodic

 

CBN

Analgesic

Anti-inflammatory

Anti-bacterial

Anti-fungal

Anti-proliferative

Bone-stimulant

CBD

Analgesic

Anti-inflammatory

Anti-bacterial

Anti-fungal

Anti-proliferative

Bone-stimulant

CBG

Analgesic

Anti-inflammatory

Anti-bacterial

Anti-fungal

Anti-proliferative

Bone-stimulant

CBC

Analgesic

Anti-inflammatory

Anti-bacterial

Anti-fungal

Anti-proliferative

Bone-stimulant

THCa

Analgesic

Anti-inflammatory

Anti-bacterial

Anti-fungal

Anti-proliferative

Bone-stimulant

THC is one of the most abundant cannabinoids found in cannabis and is responsible for the euphoria or "high" that users experience.  CBD, one of the earliest cannabinoids discovered, has been growing in notoriety for its anticonvulsant properties and is being sought by many individuals with conditions ranging from anxiety to arthritis. 

CANNABINOID
PROPERTIES

Antiemetic

Reduces nausea and vomiting

Anticonvulsant

Suppresses seizure activity

Antipsychotic

Combats psychosis

Anxiolytic

Combats anxiety disorders

Anti-Tumoral

Combats growth of tumor cells

Anti-inflammatory

Combats inflammatory disorders

Antioxidant

Combats free-radical damage.

Other cannabinoids are also found in cannabis, but many of their effects remain unclear. The future is promising in revealing the important role these compounds have. Here is a brief review of some cannabinoids and what we think we know about them. 

 

Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA)

THCA is a common compound found in raw cannabis. THCA converts to Δ9-THC when heated. THCA, CBDA, CBGA, and other acidic cannabinoids may have anti-inflammatory effects.

 

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

The most abundant cannabinoid present in cannabis, THC is responsible for cannabis’ euphoric effects. THC acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid receptors. The compound is a mild analgesic (painkiller). 


Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)

CBDA, similar to THCA, is the main constituent in cannabis with elevated CBD levels. 


Cannabidiol (CBD)

CBD is probably the most popular cannabinoid among average consumers as well as drug development. CBD is the active ingredient in the FDA approved drug, Epidiolex. Epidiolex treats rare seizure disorders. CBD is a negative allosteric modulator at cannabinoid receptors. CBD does not bind the active sites on these receptors (it binds allosteric sites). This suggests CBD’s mechanism of action is mediated by receptors elsewhere in the brain and/or body.


Cannabinol (CBN)

CBN is a mildly psychoactive cannabinoid that is produced from the degradation of THC. There is usually very little to no CBN in the cannabis plant. CBN is a weak agonist at cannabinoid receptors, with greater affinity for CB2 receptors than CB1. CBN may be responsible for some of the sedating effects of cannabis. 

 

Cannabigerol (CBG)

A non-psychoactive cannabinoid, CBG is purported to have antibacterial effects that kill or slow bacterial growth, reduce inflammation, particularly in its acidic CBGA form. CBG has low-affinity as an antagonist at CB1. 


Cannabichromene (CBC)

CBC is found in cannabis varieties grown in tropical climates. CBC appears to interact with non-cannabinoid receptors. 


Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) 

THCV is a less common cannabinoid and is found in some strains of cannabis. THCV is an antagonist at CB1 and a partial agonist CB2.


Cannabidivarin (CBDV)

CBDV  is similar to CBD and is also very "hot" right now in drug development. Initial studies have shown promise for its use in the management of developmental disorders and epilepsy. CBDV may interact with GPR55 and TRPV1 receptors and alters gene expression. 

Entourage Effect

The idea that numerous different cannabinoids and other compounds such as terpenes can interact together to produce an effect that is larger than the sum of its parts is called the entourage effect. This concept is the topic of much scientific debate. 

 

For those of you that are interested in learning more in-depth information about cannabinoids or cannabinoid sciences please read our science section!

 

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